Aflonyddu ar-lein / Online harassment

Datganiad ar y cyd gan ganolfannau PEN ar aflonyddu ar-lein

Mae aflonyddu ar-lein ar gynnydd ledled y byd1, wedi ei waethygu gan ein hamgylchedd hyper-digidol a’i gyflymu gan bandemig byd-eang. Fel corff sydd wedi ymrwymo i weithio tuag at y ‘ddelfryd o un ddynoliaeth yn byw mewn heddwch a chydraddoldeb mewn un byd’, mae PEN yn sefyll yn gadarn yn erbyn aflonyddu ar-lein ac oddi ar-lein.

Gan fod y cyfryngau cymdeithasol yn gweithredu fwyfwy fel fforwm i gyfnewid ac i drafod syniadau, mae diwylliant lle mae aflonyddu wedi dod yn norm ar draws y sbectrwm ideolegol yn ddiwylliant sydd nid yn unig yn niweidio’r rhai yr effeithir arnynt yn uniongyrchol, ond yn un sydd hefyd yn niweidio’r drafodaeth gyhoeddus drwy atal a thawelu lleisiau – gan gynnwys y sawl sydd eisoes wedi eu tangynrychioli mewn bywyd cyhoeddus – ac yn israddio’r drafodaeth ehangach.

Mae’n rhaid i unrhyw drafodaeth ar ryddid mynegiant hefyd fod yn drafodaeth ar bŵer – un sy’n ystyried graddfa a hollbresenoldeb platfformau digidol, anghydraddoldebau presennol a hanesyddol, a’r ddeinameg sydd ar waith ymhlith grwpiau o bobl sy’n ceisio cyfrannu at drafodaeth gyhoeddus. Mae aflonyddu ar-lein yn aml yn effeithio’n anghymesur ar grwpiau o bobl, gan gynnwys, ond nid yn unig, pobl sy’n profi hiliaeth, menywod, unigolion LHDTQ+ a lleiafrifoedd crefyddol2. Nid yw’n gyd-ddigwyddiad bod y grwpiau sy’n cael eu haflonyddu fwyaf difrifol ac aml ar-lein ymhlith y rhai sydd wedi dioddef y lefelau uchaf o drais oddi ar-lein3.

Cefnogwn yr hawl i gael ac i fynegi safbwyntiau cryfion, ar yr amod nad yw mynegiant o’r fath yn tanseilio hawliau dynol pobl eraill a gydnabyddir yn rhyngwladol, yn annog casineb, nac yn peri’r bygythiad na’r defnydd o drais. Mae’n iawn ac yn briodol bod craffu trwyadl ar safbwyntiau – mae rhyddid mynegiant yn sicrhau bod pob un ohonom yn medru herio syniadau rydym ni’n eu cwestiynu neu’n anghytuno â nhw. Mae anghytundeb cryf a llafar yn ffordd hanfodol i herio datganiadau sy’n tanseilio hawliau dynol pobl eraill.

Rydym ni’n llwyr gefnogol i drafod syniadau’n ddigyfaddawd, ond credwn ei bod yn hanfodol gwahaniaethu rhwng beirniadaeth ystyrlon ac aflonyddu di-alw-amdano (sy’n diraddio neu’n dychryn person neu grŵp). Rydyn ni’n gwrando ar y rhai sydd â phrofiad o aflonyddu, yn eu cymryd o ddifrif, ac yn gweithio gyda chyrff i gefnogi ac i amddiffyn unigolion sy’n wynebu aflonyddu.

Yn ogystal, byddwn ni’n parhau i roi pwysau ar blatfformau i ddiogelu a chefnogi defnyddwyr sy’n profi aflonyddu yn well, ac yn cydweithio i astudio a thynnu sylw at y broblem hon er mwyn deall y ffordd orau a mwyaf diogel i fynd i’r afael ag aflonyddu pan mae’n digwydd, ac i gefnogi’r unigolion neu grwpiau sy’n cael eu haflonyddu.

Nid yw rhyddid mynegiant yn gyfystyr â rhyddid rhag y cyfrifoldeb o fynegi barn.

O ganlyniad, galwn ar ein holl aelodau i gofio un o sylfeini Siarter PEN ac i ‘ddefnyddio pa ddylanwad bynnag sydd ganddynt o blaid dealltwriaeth dda a pharchu ei gilydd.’4

 

Arwyddwyd gan:

  • PEN Rhyngwladol
  • PEN Lloegr
  • PEN Iwerddon / PEN na hÉireann
  • PEN yr Alban
  • Wales PEN Cymru
  • PEN America
  • PEN Norwy
  • PEN Quebec
  • PEN Sweden
  • PEN De Affrica
  • PEN Sierra Leone
  • PEN Zimbabwe
  • PEN Paraguay
  • PEN Nicaragua
  • PEN Puerto Rico
  • PEN Uruguay
  • PEN Canada
  • PEN yr Ariannin
  • PEN Guadalajara
  • Canolfan PEN i ysgrifenwyr Ciwbaidd sy’n alltud / Centro PEN de Escritores Cubanos en el Exilio
  • PEN Haiti

Cyfeirnodau:

  1. https://hbr.org/2020/06/youre-not-powerless-in-the-face-of-online-harassment
  2. Gweler enghraifft https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/research/2018/03/online-violence-against-women-chapter-3/ a https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/apr/12/the-dark-side-of-guardian-comments
  3. Er enghraifft, yn y DU, roedd y rhan fwyaf o droseddau casineb yn droseddau hiliol yn 2018/19 (https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/839172/hate-crime-1819-hosb2419.pdf); mae un ym mhob pum person LHDTQ+ wedi profi trosedd neu ddigwyddiad casineb yn y deuddeg mis diwethaf, yn codi i ddau o bob pum person trawsryweddol sydd wedi profi’r un peth. (https://www.stonewall.org.uk/lgbt-britain-hate-crime-and-discrimination); bydd un o bob tair menyw yn profi camdriniaeth yn y cartref a/neu ymosodiad rhywiol yn ystod ei bywyd (https://homeofficemedia.blog.gov.uk/2019/03/07/violence-against-women-and-girls-and-male-position-factsheets/).
  4. https://www.englishpen.org/the-pen-charter/
Joint PEN statement on online harassment

Across the world online harassment is on the rise1, exacerbated by our hyper-digital environment and accelerated by a global pandemic. As an organisation committed to working towards the ‘ideal of one humanity living in peace and equality in one world’, PEN stands firmly against both offline and online harassment.

As social media increasingly serves as a forum to exchange and debate ideas, a culture in which harassment has become the norm across the ideological spectrum is a culture that not only harms those directly affected, but damages public debate by suppressing and silencing voices – including those already underrepresented in public life – and degrades our wider discourse.

Any discussion of freedom of expression must also be a discussion of power – one that takes into account the scale and ubiquity of digital platforms, current and historic inequalities and the dynamics at play among groups attempting to contribute to public discourse. Online harassment often disproportionately affects specific groups of people, including, but not limited to, people who experience racism, women, LGBTQ+ individuals, and religious minorities2. It is no coincidence that the groups most severely and frequently harassed online are among those who have been subjected to the most significant levels of violence offline3.

We support the right to hold and express strong views, provided that such expression does not undermine the internationally recognised human rights of others, incite hatred, nor engender the threat or use of violence. It is right and proper that viewpoints are held up to rigorous scrutiny – free expression ensures that each of us is able to challenge ideas we question or disagree with. Strong and vocal disagreement is an essential way to challenge statements which undermine the human rights of others.

We wholeheartedly support such robust debate of ideas, but we believe it is crucial to distinguish between meaningful criticism and gratuitous harassment (which degrades or intimidates a person or group). We are listening to and taking seriously those with experience of harassment and working with organisations to better support and protect individuals facing harassment.

Additionally we will continue to put pressure on platforms to better protect and support users facing harassment, and collaborate to study and draw attention to this issue so as to understand how best to identify and safely confront harassment when it occurs, and support those individuals or groups undergoing harassment.

Freedom of speech is not freedom from the responsibilities of speech.

As such, we call on all our members to recall one of the foundations of the PEN Charter and ‘use what influence they have in favour of good understanding and mutual respect’4.

 

Signed:

  • PEN International
  • English PEN
  • Irish PEN/PEN na hÉireann
  • Scottish PEN
  • Wales PEN Cymru
  • PEN America
  • PEN Norway
  • PEN Quebec
  • PEN Sweden
  • PEN South Africa
  • PEN Sierra Leone
  • PEN Zimbabwe
  • PEN Paraguay
  • PEN Nicaragua
  • PEN Puerto Rico
  • PEN Uruguay
  • PEN Canada
  • PEN Argentina
  • PEN Guadalajara
  • Centro PEN de Escritores Cubanos en el Exilio
  • PEN Haiti

References

  1. https://hbr.org/2020/06/youre-not-powerless-in-the-face-of-online-harassment
  2. See for example https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/research/2018/03/online-violence-against-women-chapter-3/ and https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/apr/12/the-dark-side-of-guardian-comments
  3. For example, in the UK, the majority of hate crimes were race hate crimes in 2018/19 (https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/839172/hate-crime-1819-hosb2419.pdf); one in five LGBTQ+ people have experienced a hate crime or incident in the last twelve months, rising to two in five transgender people who have experienced the same (https://www.stonewall.org.uk/lgbt-britain-hate-crime-and-discrimination); one in three women will experience domestic abuse and/or sexual assault during her lifetime (https://homeofficemedia.blog.gov.uk/2019/03/07/violence-against-women-and-girls-and-male-position-factsheets/).
  4. https://www.englishpen.org/the-pen-charter/